Wang Rudong (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, China; Tallinn University) “A Contrastive Study of Mandarin shì and Estonian ole- in Grammar”


This paper analyses the Mandarin shì and Estonian ole- in the distribution and function of grammar, and reveals the essential difference in their nature. Initially shì was a pronoun and then became a copulative verb, functioning as a judging and stressing word, which is still used in contemporary Chinese. It can sometimes be omitted without influencing the meaning of the sentence. Estonian ole- has rich meanings in grammar, such as shì and yǒu in Chinese, and sometimes it acts as a predictive element for description to the subject, but not the simple literal comparisons. It is complicated and distinctive of the related grammars in different languages.