Li Jianqiang (Renmin University, China) “On the Pronunciation of Sanskrit aksạra jña Based on the Transcriptional Material of Hṛdaya Sūtra and Others”


In the common text books of Sanskrit, the instructions of aksạra jña are not unanimous. By the proofs of the Sanskrit-Chinese transcription, the aksạra jña were pronounced as [ɡȵa], [dȵa] no later than 10 century CE, and as [ɡja] no later than the Liao and Song eras. Furthermore, the aksạra jña can also be pronounced as [ʥȵa] and [ȵa]. The proofs of the last two pronunciations existed earlier than the former three. The common textbooks of Sanskrit ignored the last two pronunciations probably because no consideration was given to the historical origins.