Peeter Espak (University of Tartu, Estonia) “The Problems of the Genealogical Structures of the Early Sumerian Pantheon”


The paper discusses some of the most important questions about the Sumero-Akkadian early pantheon, and related to its structure, also the aspects of the creation mythology. The god lists SF 23 from Fāra show seven divine pairs headed by Enki and Ninki, followed by Enlil and Ninlil, then five en and nin pairs.

A similar order is followed in the Abū Salābīkh list with slight variations in adding a pair en-an and nin-an. One of the points of discussion is to figure out the meaning of the primordial en pairs and their genealogical relations to the second and third generation of gods in the mythology and their relation to the god An. The concluding part of the paper tries to demonstrate the possible genealogical relations of gods and humans in the earliest known texts.